STABILISING TERRAIN

The Singapore Public Utilities Board has made it mandatory for contractors to install silty water treatment systems at construction sites as part of their earth control measures.

Many products that come in a wide range of forms and materials can be used to stabilise terrain and resolve civil engineering problems.
Geotextile


Geotextiles are generally used for erosion control, soil stability and drainage. There are two types of geotextiles (woven or non-woven) and each type has their own advantage depending on the application they are used in.

Woven Geotextile:
Woven geotextiles are made of UV stabilized polyester or polypropylene.

Characteristics of woven geotextiles:
o High load capacity: Woven geotextiles are manufactured by weaving to form a large, uniform piece. They are also known as high strength geotextiles or ground stabilization geotextiles and assist in preventing uneven settlement of soft ground. Woven geotextiles are better used in stabilisation or reinforcement projects.
o Less porous: Due to the weaving manufacturing method, they may not be suitable in applications where drainage is important but can be used in erosion control projects where water must be passed over surfaces with little draining to below soil.
o Corrosion resistant: Can be used for longer term applications.

Non-Woven Geotextile:
Non-woven geotextiles are made of synthetics, for example, virgin polypropylene fibres.

Characteristics of non-woven geotextiles:
o Lower load capacity: Non-woven geotextiles are manufactured by bonding materials together using chemicals or heat, needle punching or other methods, and are not woven by a loom.
o More porous: Due to the manufacturing method as compared to weaving of woven geotextiles, non-woven geotextiles are better used in filter or separation applications, or applications where water should not be pooled.

General Applications of Geotextiles:

 Separation:
 Prevents mixing of soil in different layers 
 Filtration:
 Allows for retention of particles whilst maintaining desired permeability 
 Drainage:
 Collects excess water for discharge 
 Reinforcement:
 Reinforces earth structures
 
 Protection:
 Protects geomembranes against mechanical damage during construction
 Waterproofing:
 Resists ingress of water

Product Specs:

 Dimension  Weight – 100.0 g/m² to 1000.0 g/m²
 Length – 50.0m to 200.0m
 Width – 2.0m to 4.0m
 Material   Polypropylene or Polyester

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Geocell

Geocell, also known as cellular confinement systems, are made of high density polyethylene (HDPE) ultrasonically bonded together for strength. Their honeycomb structure confines desired infill and prevents downwards migration of material and are used as protection for slopes against erosion or for soil stabilisation.

Applications:
• Erosion Control
• Slope Protection
• Retaining Wall
• Load Support
• Channel Protection
• Ground Stabilization

Product Specs:

 Dimension  Section Size: Width 2.44m x Length 6.15m
 Height Available: 100.0mm, 150.0mm & 200.0mm
 Material   High Density Polyethylene (HDPE)

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Geogrid

GeoGrid are made of synthetic materials and are engineered to be mechanically and chemically stable in harsh construction installation and soil environment. We provide GeoGrid made of high-strength multifilament polyester yarns and surface-coated with PVC so that they are unaffected by soil microorganisms, chemicals, UV radiation and mechanical damage.

GeoGrid reinforces soil, relieves soil strain and increases soil stability. They help to prevent differential settlement of ground and improves ground bearing strength.

Applications:
• Roads & Abutments
• Slope & Retaining Walls
• Landfill & Reclaimed land
• Soft Ground

Product Specs:

 Dimension (Per Roll)  Length 50.0m to100.0m x Width 4.0m
 Material   High Tenacity Polyester Yarns Coated with PVC

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Geosynthetics Clay Liners

Geosynthetic Clay Liners (GCL) are made of bentonite composites sandwiched between geotextiles and are designed for containment applications. Due to the use of bentonite which has high swelling capacity and are of low permeability, the liners have a self-sealing characteristic; Also due to the use of geotextiles, the liners are resistant to physical or chemical breakdown in harsh conditions.

Applications:
• Landfill caps, closures and base seal
• Environmental protection under roads, railways, airports
• Dams and dykes
• Water containment and pond applications
• Structural waterproofing
• Secondary containment
• Mining applications
• Tunnels

Product Specs:

 Dimension (Per Roll)  Width 4.0m x Length 50.0m to 100.0m
 Material   Polypropylene or Polyester Geotextile with Bentonite

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Geotubes

Geotubes, also known as Geobags, are made of geotextiles and are used as highly permeable dewatering containers. They are brought onto site, placed into position, and pumped filled with sludge or dredged material so that effluent water will later be drained from these containers leaving only the solids residue in the containers.

Applications:
• Coastline Erosion Control
• Marine & Underwater Structures
• Dewatering of Sludge & Dredged Materials
• Wetland Creation & Vegetation

Product Specs:

 Dimension  Length – 10.0m to 100.0m
 Width – available from 1.5m to 13.4m
 Height – available from 1.2m to 3.5m
 Material   Polypropylene or Polyester

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